what is meditation

[93][94] Jewish Buddhists have adopted Buddhist styles of meditation. Therefore, meditation is a process in which we shift from thinking to feeling. 2. Kundalini yoga. ", "Unpleasant meditation-related experiences in regular meditators: Prevalence, predictors, and conceptual considerations", "Sitting with the Demons – Mindfulness, Suffering, and Existential Transformation", "Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice", "Meditation practices for health: state of the research", Anapanasati (Buddhist breathing meditation), Shikantaza (Zen Buddhist seated meditation), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meditation&oldid=1000511859, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2020, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Religion articles needing expert attention, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Walsh & Shapiro (2006): "[M]editation refers to a family of self-regulation practices that focus on training attention and awareness in order to bring mental processes under greater voluntary control and thereby foster general mental well-being and development and/or specific capacities such as calm, clarity, and concentration", Jevning et al. [110][111] This became one of the essential elements of Sufism as it was systematized traditionally. The word derives from the Hebrew word "boded" (בודד), meaning the state of being alone. This practice of returning to the breath builds the muscles of attention and mindfulness. [31], Direction of mental attention... A practitioner can focus intensively on one particular object (so-called concentrative meditation), on all mental events that enter the field of awareness (so-called mindfulness meditation), or both specific focal points and the field of awareness. Meditation (dhyan) is a spiritual practice performed for mental, physical and emotional well-being. Meditation. The (late 4th century BCE) Guanzi essay Neiye "Inward training" is the oldest received writing on the subject of qi cultivation and breath-control meditation techniques. When you meditate on an object, mantra or a guru your mind becomes still because you are making the mind concentrate on one thing. [23]:135, [...] It is plausible that meditation is best thought of as a natural category of techniques best captured by 'family resemblances' [...] or by the related 'prototype' model of concepts. [91] This practice is the analytical reflective process of making oneself understand a mystical concept well, that follows and internalises its study in Hasidic writings. The English meditation is derived from Old French meditacioun, in turn from Latin meditatio from a verb meditari, meaning "to think, contemplate, devise, ponder". [118] During the Nineteen Day Fast, a period of the year during which Baháʼís adhere to a sunrise-to-sunset fast, they meditate and pray to reinvigorate their spiritual forces. It is the means for fathoming all the levels of ourselves and finally experiencing the center of consciousness within. (2009, p. 130) reads: "The differences and similarities among these techniques is often explained in the Western meditation literature in terms of the direction of mental attention (Koshikawa & Ichii, 1996; Naranjo, 1971; Orenstein, 1971): A practitioner can focus intensively on one particular object (so-called, For instance, Kamalashila (2003), p. 4, states that Buddhist meditation "includes any method of meditation that has, Goldstein (2003) writes that, in regard to the. "[22]:6 A 2009 study noted a "persistent lack of consensus in the literature" and a "seeming intractability of defining meditation". Christian meditation aims to heighten the personal relationship based on the love of God that marks Christian communion. 30 June 2007. [174], A 2017 systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of meditation on empathy, compassion, and prosocial behaviors found that meditation practices had small to medium effects on self-reported and observable outcomes, concluding that such practices can "improve positive prosocial emotions and behaviors". [32][33], Open monitoring methods include mindfulness, shikantaza and other awareness states. [21] There remains no definition of necessary and sufficient criteria for meditation that has achieved universal or widespread acceptance within the modern scientific community. Meditation & The References From Various Religions –, Meditation for Beginners without Religion –. [64] In pre-modern and traditional Hinduism, Yoga and Dhyana are practised to realize union of one's eternal self or soul, one's ātman. In their final consideration, all 7 experts regarded this feature as an "essential" component of meditation; none of them regarded it as merely "important but not essential" (p. 234, Table 4). It takes consistent practice to get comfortable. I am using the word meditation in this sense. [99], The Rosary is a devotion for the meditation of the mysteries of Jesus and Mary. divine reading. [168][173] Studies demonstrate that meditation has a moderate effect to reduce pain. One common explanation contrasts "movement in stillness" referring to energetic visualization of qi circulation in qigong and zuochan "seated meditation",[37] versus "stillness in movement" referring to a state of meditative calm in taijiquan forms. Meditation For Beginners: 20 Practical Tips To Quiet the Mind. [150][151], The Islamic practice of Dhikr had involved the repetition of the 99 Names of God since the 8th or 9th century. [48] For instance he himself prostrates to the teachings, and meditates "not primarily for my benefit, but for the benefit of others".[48]. Ornstein noted that "Most techniques of meditation do not exist as solitary practices but are only artificially separable from an entire system of practice and belief. [44] Other typologies include dividing meditation into concentrative, generative, receptive and reflective practices. [citation needed]. We have all heard that meditation reduces stress, and it does, but the benefits of meditation are so much more than that. [176], Meditation has been correlated with unpleasant experiences in some people. It is juxtaposed with fikr (thinking) which leads to knowledge. The earliest records of meditation (dhyana) are found in the Vedas, and meditation exerts a salient role in the contemplative repertoire of Hinduism and Buddhism. The result you gain out of the practice is increased concentration and focus. [69] A mantra could be either a combination of core letters or words on deity or themes. He also encouraged people to reflect on one's actions and worth at the end of each day. In addition, interest in some Western-based meditative practices has been revived,[159] and these have been disseminated to a limited extent to Asian countries.[160]. Meditation is also sometimes done while walking, known as kinhin, while doing a simple task mindfully, known as samu or while lying down known as savasana. The practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer (Gyata-Drashta). [78] For instance, "When you enlarge your mind and let go of it, when you relax your vital breath and expand it, when your body is calm and unmoving: And you can maintain the One and discard the myriad disturbances. The body goes through sets of different postures, as the mind attains a level of concentration called khushu. [14][15] The use of the term meditatio as part of a formal, stepwise process of meditation goes back to the 12th century monk Guigo II. Bond et al. [177][178][179][180], In one study, published in 2019, of 1,232 regular meditators with at least two months of meditation experience, about a quarter reported having had particularly unpleasant meditation-related experiences (such as anxiety, fear, distorted emotions or thoughts, altered sense of self or the world), which they thought may have been caused by their meditation practice. This is because magic is often thought to require a particular state of mind in order to make contact with spirits, or because one has to visualize one's goal or otherwise keep intent focused for a long period during the ritual in order to see the desired outcome. [142], The history of meditation is intimately bound up with the religious context within which it was practiced. Meditation is a practice aimed at training the mind. Definition Meditation is a practice of concentrated focus upon a sound, object, visualization, the breath, movement, or attention itself in order to increase awareness of the present moment, reduce stress, promote relaxation, and enhance personal and spiritual growth. "watch; observe; view") meditation seeks to merge and attain unity with the Dao. Salah is a mandatory act of devotion performed by Muslims five times per day. [113], Sufism uses a meditative procedure like Buddhist concentration, involving high-intensity and sharply focused introspection. Robert Ornstein (1972) [1971], in: Naranjo and Orenstein. Meditation is a practice for calming one’s mind and body. Harvard University Press, 2000, p. 199. The earliest reference is actually in the Mokshadharma, which dates to the early Buddhist period. Good question! Sometimes your focus will wander or you’ll forget to follow your breath. Meditation is commonly described as a training of mental attention that awakens us beyond the conditioned mind and habitual thinking, and reveals the nature of reality. Taoist meditation has developed techniques including concentration, visualization, qi cultivation, contemplation, and mindfulness meditations in its long history. [90] Another Hasidic system is the Habad method of "hisbonenus", related to the Sephirah of "Binah", Hebrew for understanding. These are ethical discipline (yamas), rules (niyamas), physical postures (āsanas), breath control (prāṇāyama), withdrawal from the senses (pratyāhāra), one-pointedness of mind (dhāraṇā), meditation (dhyāna), and finally samādhi. See, for instance, AN 2.30 in Bodhi (2005), pp. (This same result is presented in Table B1 in Ospina, Bond, et al., 2007, p. 281), This does not mean that all meditation seeks to take a person beyond. [148] The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism introduced meditation to other Asian countries, and in 653 the first meditation hall was opened in Singapore. Meditation practice in these religions usually revolves around visualization, absorbing energy from the universe or higher self, directing one's internal energy, and inducing various trance states. [clarification needed], Jainism uses meditation techniques such as pindāstha-dhyāna, padāstha-dhyāna, rūpāstha-dhyāna, rūpātita-dhyāna, and savīrya-dhyāna. 2009: "Logic relaxation is defined by the authors as “not ‘to intend’ to analyzing (not trying to explain) the possible psychophysi"cal effects,” “not ‘to intend’ to judging (good, bad, right, wrong) the possible psychophysical [effects],” and “not ‘to intend’ to creating any type of expectation regarding the process.” (Cardoso et al., 2004, p. 59)". Muslim teachings embrace life as a test of one's submission to God. (2009) report that 7 expert scholars who had studied different traditions of meditation agreed that an "essential" component of meditation "Involves logic relaxation: not 'to intend' to analyze the possible psychophysical effects, not 'to intend' to judge the possible results, not 'to intend' to create any type of expectation regarding the process" (p. 134, Table 4). [85], Classical Jewish texts espouse a wide range of meditative practices, often associated with the cultivation of kavanah or intention. "Brain Scans Reveal Why Meditation Works." Some regard meditation is the mental concentration on something, others consider that we meditate when we imagine something that gives us peace or satisfaction. Its four formal steps as a "ladder" were defined by the monk Guigo II in the 12th century with the Latin terms lectio, meditatio, oratio, and contemplatio (i.e. Most prominent has been the transmission of Asian-derived practices to the West. Meditation is a mental technique to turn in towards your inner self and the present moment. Around the 6th to 5th centuries BCE, other forms of meditation developed via Confucianism and Taoism in China as well as Hinduism, Jainism, and early Buddhism in India.[143]. New Age meditation as practised by the early hippies is regarded for its techniques of blanking out the mind and releasing oneself from conscious thinking. Sign up for Headspace for free, and start reaping the benefits of meditation today. Meditation is an activity in which the practitioner just sits and allows the mind to dissolve. Meditation is also a consciousness-changing technique that has been shown to have a wide number of benefits on psychological well-being. In modern Jewish practice, one of the best known meditative practices is called "hitbodedut" (התבודדות, alternatively transliterated as "hisbodedus"), and is explained in Kabbalistic, Hasidic, and Mussar writings, especially the Hasidic method of Rabbi Nachman of Breslav. Improving concentration and focus 83 ] Similarly, there are indications throughout the Tanakh ( the word. Negative thinking and those who only engage in deconstructive meditation were more likely to unpleasant. Complete restful state of awareness and getting a healthy sense of perspective reactions to stress to enter deeper states mind... Body practices focus on the processes and effects of meditation have taken root a concept thoughts feelings. Aryeh Kaplan has argued that the ultimate purpose of Kabbalistic meditation is mental. A cure for mental, physical and emotional well-being on psychological well-being to materials for... 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